Outcomes of Primary and Secondary Carotid Artery Stenting
Background and Purpose—Little is known of the excess risk attributable to secondary carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). This study evaluates outcomes of redo-CAS and CAS after prior ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy (CASAPICEA) relative to primary-CAS.
Methods—We studied all patients in the Vascular Quality Initiative, who underwent primary-CAS, CASAPICEA, or redo-CAS (2003–2016). Kaplan–Meier, multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate outcomes within 30 days and up to 1 year and identify their predictors.
Results—There were 11 742 CAS procedures performed: 8519 (72%) primary-, 2645 (23%) CASAPICEA, and 578 (5%) redo-CAS. Comparing primary-CAS versus CASAPICEA versus redo-CAS, 30-day stroke/death was 2.5% versus 2.0% versus 1.3% for asymptomatic patients (P=0.23) and 5.2% versus 2.6% versus 5.0% for symptomatic patients (P=0.003). CASAPICEA was associated with significantly lower 30-day stroke/death (odds ratio: 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.37–0.98; P=0.04) compared with primary-CAS among symptomatic patients. The odds of bradycardia were lower following CASAPICEA (odds ratio: 0.32; 95% confidence interval: 0.26–0.39; P<0.001) and redo-CAS (odds ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.39–0.78; P=0.001) compared with primary-CAS. Similarly, the odds of hypotension were significantly lower in both groups compared with primary-CAS (CASAPICEA: 0.41 [0.35–0.48], P<0.001; redo-CAS: 0.66 [0.50–0.86] P=0.003). There were no significant differences in the hazards of stroke/death at 1 year for CASAPICEA and redo-CAS compared with primary-CAS.
Conclusions—CASAPICEA is associated with significantly lower odds of periprocedural stroke/death compared with primary-CAS among symptomatic patients. CASAPICEA and redo-CAS are associated with significantly lower odds of periprocedural hypotension and bradycardia but higher odds of hypertension compared with primary-CAS.
- Received February 5, 2017.
- Revision received July 29, 2017.
- Accepted August 8, 2017.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.