Critical Role of Flavin and Glutathione in Complex I–Mediated Bioenergetic Failure in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Background and Purpose—Ischemic brain injury is characterized by 2 temporally distinct but interrelated phases: ischemia (primary energy failure) and reperfusion (secondary energy failure). Loss of cerebral blood flow leads to decreased oxygen levels and energy crisis in the ischemic area, initiating a sequence of pathophysiological events that after reoxygenation lead to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain damage. Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are known to be early events in I/R injury. However, the biochemical mechanisms of mitochondria damage in I/R are not completely understood.
Methods—We used a mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia to investigate acute I/R-induced changes of mitochondrial function, focusing on mechanisms of primary and secondary energy failure.
Results—Ischemia induced a reversible loss of flavin mononucleotide from mitochondrial complex I leading to a transient decrease in its enzymatic activity, which is rapidly reversed on reoxygenation. Reestablishing blood flow led to a reversible oxidative modification of mitochondrial complex I thiol residues and inhibition of the enzyme. Administration of glutathione-ethyl ester at the onset of reperfusion prevented the decline of complex I activity and was associated with smaller infarct size and improved neurological outcome, suggesting that decreased oxidation of complex I thiols during I/R-induced oxidative stress may contribute to the neuroprotective effect of glutathione ester.
Conclusions—Our results unveil a key role of mitochondrial complex I in the development of I/R brain injury and provide the mechanistic basis for the well-established mitochondrial dysfunction caused by I/R. Targeting the functional integrity of complex I in the early phase of reperfusion may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent tissue injury after stroke.
- Received September 11, 2017.
- Revision received February 1, 2018.
- Accepted February 16, 2018.
- © 2018 The Authors.
Stroke is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.