Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack or Stroke and Symptomatic Vascular Disease in Multiple Arterial Beds
Background and Purpose—Cerebrovascular, coronary, and peripheral vascular disease have common underlying arterial pathology and risk factors, but the clinical significance of multiple-territory disease in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA)/ischemic stroke is unclear, particularly whether the number of clinically affected territories still predicts long-term outcome on current standard secondary prevention therapies.
Methods—In a population-based study of 92 728 individuals in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (Oxford Vascular Study), we studied patients presenting with TIA/ischemic stroke (2002–2014) in relation to the number of other vascular beds (coronary, peripheral) affected by symptomatic (current or previous) disease. We compared the risk factor profile and long-term prognosis in patients with single- versus multiple-territory disease.
Results—Among 2554 patients with 10 679 patient-years of follow-up, 1842 (72.1%) had single- (TIA/stroke only), 608 (23.8%) double-, and 104 (4.1%) triple-territory symptomatic vascular disease. The number of affected vascular beds increased with the number of atherosclerotic risk factors (Ptrend<0.0001). Compared with patients with TIA/stroke only, those with multiple-territory disease had more hypertension (age/sex-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.76–4.27; P<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 2.27–3.66; P<0.0001), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 3.85–5.66; P<0.0001), and current or previous smoking (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.26–1.84; P<0.0001). Triple-territory disease was particularly strongly associated with hypercholesterolemia (OR, 6.80; 95% CI, 4.39–10.53; P<0.0001). Despite more intensive secondary prevention in patients with multiple-territory disease, the 5-year risk of vascular death increased steeply with the number of territories affected (17.2% versus 30.0% versus 42.9%; P<0.0001). Compared with patients with single-territory, patients with multiple-territory disease also had higher postacute long-term risks (90 days to 10 years) of recurrent ischemic stroke (age/sex-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.04–1.81; P=0.02) and nonstroke acute vascular events (hazard ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.23–4.20; P<0.0001).
Conclusions—Number of affected vascular beds appeared to be a simple clinical rule in identifying TIA/ischemic stroke patients who are at high long-term risk of nonstroke vascular events and vascular death.
- Received January 30, 2018.
- Revision received April 29, 2018.
- Accepted May 11, 2018.
- Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).
Stroke is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.