To submit your manuscript online, please visit the journal's online manuscript submission site (http://stroke-submit.aha-journals.org), and follow the instructions for creating an author account and submitting a manuscript. Access can also be gained by visiting Stroke online at http://stroke.ahajournals.org and selecting the Online Submissions button. If you have any questions about the online submission process, contact the Editorial Office by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Initial Review Process
Submitted manuscripts will be evaluated initially by an associate editor or guest editor. During initial review, the associate editor will determine whether or not the manuscript is appropriate for a full review based on the quality, originality, scientific rigor and data presentation/analysis of the manuscript. In some instances, the associate editor may reach out to a second reviewer (assistant editor, section editor, member of the editorial board, or invited reviewer with topic-related expertise) for this quick assessment. It is anticipated that approximately 50% of the submitted manuscripts will undergo formal review and 50% will be rejected without evaluation by external reviewers. This policy reflects the stringent requirements for the acceptance of manuscripts submitted to Stroke.
The editors invite submission of manuscripts that have major importance to the scientific community. To be considered for expedited publication, an article must be unique and contain information that could make a significant difference in medical practice or constitute an important advance in basic knowledge. The authors must clearly state reasons for the request in the cover letter. If the editors agree that an article should be an expedited publication, they will arrange an accelerated review and, if accepted, accelerated publication.
To avoid actual or perceived conflict of interest, the journal uses guest editors to handle certain manuscripts. For more details, see the Conflict-of-Interest Policy.
Please upload a cover letter that includes the following statement: “All authors have read and approved the submitted manuscript, the manuscript has not been submitted elsewhere nor published elsewhere in whole or in part, except as an abstract (if relevant).” The cover letter may include the names of up to 3 potential reviewers whom the authors would like to suggest, especially members of the editorial board. The authors may also include the names of up to 3 reviewers whom they would like to not evaluate their submission. The editor ultimately decides who reviews the manuscript. Lastly, please note any potential overlapping content submitted or accepted to another journal or conference.
- Only Microsoft Word files will be accepted for review.
- Manuscripts must be double-spaced, including references, figure legends, and tables.
- We recommend using Times New Roman 12-point font.
- Leave 1-inch margins on all sides. Number every page, beginning with the abstract page, including tables, figure legends, and figures.
- Manuscripts should be presented in the following sequence:
- Title page
- Text, including Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Summary/Conclusions
- Sources of Funding
- Figure Legends
- NEW April 5, 2017: Visual Abstract (ONLY for Basic Science Articles)
- Online Supplement
- Cite each reference in the text in numerical order and list in the References section. In text, reference numbers may be repeated but not omitted. Do not duplicate references either in text or in the reference list.
- Cite each figure and table in the text in numerical order.
- Upload one copy of any in-press article that is cited in the references, if applicable.
- Upload one copy of any abstracts published or submitted for publication, if applicable.
- Use SI units of measure in all manuscripts. For example, molar (M) should be changed to mol/L; mg/dL to mmol/L; and cm to mm. Units of measure previously reported as percentages (e.g., hematocrit) are expressed as a decimal fraction. Measurements currently not converted to SI units in biomedical applications are blood and oxygen pressures, enzyme activity, H+ concentration, temperature, and volume. The SI unit should be used in text, followed by the conventionally used measurement in parentheses. Conversions should be made by the author before the manuscript is submitted for peer review.
- Provide $US dollar equivalents if you include other currency amounts in the manuscript.
- Please provide sex-specific and/or racial/ethnic-specific data, when appropriate, in describing outcomes of epidemiologic analyses or clinical trials; or specifically state that no sex-based or racial/ethnic-based differences were present. See the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals for more details.
- Please review the correct usage of the terms “sex” and “gender.” “’Gender’ refers to a person’s self-representation...or how that person is responded to by social institutions on the basis of the person’s gender presentation. ‘Gender’ is rooted in biology and shaped by environment and experience;” “sex” describes a class of “living things as male or female according to their reproductive organs and functions assigned by chromosomal compliment” (AMA 10th ed. 2007: p 395. Please use the terms appropriately.
- December 2016: Confidence intervals should be reported instead of P values for estimated parameters, such as odds ratios and relative risks; P values should be reported only for relevant analytic tests. Authors are encouraged to avoid the pitfalls associated with the misuse of P values as measures of significance. Please refer to "The ASA's Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose." The American Statistician. 2016.70;2: 129-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108.
- Authorship Responsibility and Copyright Transfer Agreement Forms (and Licensing Agreements for Original Contributions) are ONLINE ONLY. Forms will be required PRIOR to resubmission, or if the manuscript has only one version (e.g., a letter to the editor) after acceptance. Each author will be sent an email containing a link to the form at the appropriate time.
- Consult the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th ed, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007, for style.
- Consult current issues for additional guidance on format.
- The first page of the manuscript should be the title page. This page must include:
- Full title of the article, limited to 120 characters.
- Authors’ names, highest academic degree earned by each, authors’ affiliations, name and complete address for correspondence, and address for reprints if different from address for correspondence. Please also include any study group or collaboration in the author list, i.e., “ . . .Last Author, on behalf of the Stroke Study Group”
- Fax number, telephone number, and e-mail address for the corresponding author.
- Cover title (total characters must not exceed 50, including spaces) to be typeset on the top of the journal page.
- Updated May 5, 2017: Total number of tables and figures, e.g., Tables 2; Figures 3.
- 3 to 7 key words for use as indexing terms. Consider using terms found in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) database.
- Subject Terms for use as search terms across Highwire Press online journals Article Collections database. Please select from the Journal Subject Terms List.
- Specify the number of words in the whole document on your title page, e.g., Word Count: 4896. Word count should include all parts of the manuscript (i.e., title page, abstract, main body of text, acknowledgments, sources of funding, disclosures, references, figure legends, tables, and appendices intended for print publication). Over-length manuscripts will NOT be accepted for publication. See the Costs to Authors above.
- Do not cite references in the abstract.
- Limit use of acronyms and abbreviations.
- NEW March 29, 2017: Be concise (300 words, maximum).
- December 2015: For authors following the PRISMA guideline, please use the journal abstract headings detailed below.
- The abstract should have the following headings:
- Background and Purpose (description of rationale for study)
- Methods (brief description of methods)
- Results (presentation of significant results)
- Conclusions (succinct statement of data interpretation)
- When applicable, include a fifth heading: “Clinical Trial Registration” Please list the URL, as well as the Unique Identifier, for the publicly accessible website on which the trial is registered. If the trial is not registered, please indicate the reason in the heading.
- Example 1: Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00123456.
- Example 2: Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN70000879.
- Example 3: Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.chictr.org. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-RCH-14004884.
- Example 4: Clinical Trial Registration-This trial was not registered because enrollment began prior to July 1, 2005.
- The following are typical main headings: Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Summary.
- Abbreviations must be defined at first mention in the text, tables, and figures.
- Introduction: This section should briefly introduce the context of the results to be presented and should duplicate what is contained elsewhere in the manuscript
- For any apparatuses used in Methods, the complete names of manufacturers must be supplied.
- For human subjects or patients, describe their characteristics.
- For animals used in experiments, state the species, strain, number used, and other pertinent descriptive characteristics.
- When describing surgical procedures on animals, identify the preanesthetic and anesthetic agents used, and state the amount or concentration and the route and frequency of administration for each. The use of paralytic agents, such as curare or succinylcholine, is not an acceptable substitute for anesthetics.
- For other invasive procedures on animals, report the analgesic or tranquilizing drugs used. If none were used, provide justification for such exclusion.
- Manuscripts that describe studies on humans must include a statement indicating if ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board and if written informed consent was obtained from patients or if the board waived the need for patient consent.
- Manuscripts involving animals must indicate that the study was approved by an institutional animal care and use committee.
- Reports of studies on both animals and humans must indicate that the procedures followed were in accordance with institutional guidelines.
- All drugs should be referred to by their generic names rather than trade names. The generic chemical identification of all investigational drugs must be provided.
- A statistical subsection must be provided at the end of the Methods section describing the statistical methodology employed for the data presented in the manuscript.
- The Methods section should provide essential information related to the conduct of the study presented in the manuscript. For methodology previously published by the authors, the prior publication should be referenced and a copy of the paper provided to the reviewers, if necessary.
- The Methods section should only contain material that is absolutely necessary for comprehension of the results section. Additional (more detailed) methods can be provided as a data supplement.
- Prevention of bias is important for experimental stroke research (see Macleod et al, Stroke.2009;40:e50-e52). For studies where the primary objective is the preclinical testing of therapies, the following checklist items must be adhered to and clearly documented in the manuscript:
- Animals: Species, strains and sources must be defined. For genetically modified animals, wildtype controls including background and back-crossing must be defined.
- Statistics and sample size: Specific statistical methods must be defined, including parametric versus nonparametric and multigroup analyses, and sample size powering based on expected variances and differences between groups.
- Inclusions and exclusions: Specific criteria for inclusions and exclusions must be specified. For example, only animals where blood flow reductions fall below a certain threshold are included. Or only animals with a certain degree of neurological deficits are included. Once animals are randomized (see below), all excluded animals must be reported, including explicit presentation of mortality rates.
- Randomization, allocation concealment and blinding: All animals must be randomized. Investigators responsible for surgical procedures or drug treatments must be blinded. End point assessments must be performed by investigators blinded to the groups for which each animal is assigned.
- Any submitted meta-analyses should follow the PRISMA or MOOSE guidelines. The authors must clearly state in the Methods section which guideline was followed. Details on PRISMA can be found here http://www.prisma-statement.org. Details on MOOSE can be found via the EQUATOR Network.
This section should succinctly report the results of experimental studies and clinical research or clinical series/observations.
New December 2016: Confidence intervals should be reported instead of P values for estimated parameters, such as odds ratios and relative risks; P values should be reported only for relevant analytic tests. Authors are encouraged to avoid the pitfalls associated with the misuse of P values as measures of significance. Please refer to "The ASA's Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose." The American Statistician. 2016.70;2: 129-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108.
This section should not reiterate the results but put the results in appropriate context regarding relevant literature and the importance of new observations contained in the manuscript.
A brief paragraph summarizing the results and their importance may be included but is not required.
The acknowledgments section lists all substantive contributions of individuals. Authors should obtain written, signed permission from all individuals who are listed in the “Acknowledgments” section of the manuscript, because readers may infer their endorsement of data and conclusions. These permissions must be provided to the Editorial Office. Please see the Acknowledgment Permission Form. The corresponding author must mark the following statement on the ONLINE ONLY Copyright Transfer Agreement form or Licensing Agreement, certifying that (1) all persons who have made substantial contributions in the manuscript (e.g., data collection, analysis, or writing or editing assistance), but who do not fulfill authorship criteria, are named with their specific contributions in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript; (2) all persons named in the Acknowledgments section have provided the corresponding author with written permission to be named in the manuscript; and (3) if an Acknowledgments section is not included, no other persons have made substantial contributions to this manuscript.
Authors must list all sources of research support relevant to the manuscript in this location. All grant funding agency abbreviations should be completely spelled out, with the exception of the NIH. Note that funding should be listed separately from disclosures.
Authors must state disclosures in the manuscript text prior to first review and provide disclosures online when submitting a revision or upon request after acceptance. Disclosures stated in the text must match the online disclosures. If you have no disclosures, please state “Disclosures: None” in the manuscript text before the references. Conflicts of interest pertain to relationships with pharmaceutical companies, biomedical device manufacturers, or other corporations whose products or services are related to the subject matter of the article. Such relationships include, but are not limited to, employment by an industrial concern, ownership of stock, membership on a standing advisory council or committee, being on the board of directors, or being publicly associated with the company or its products. Other areas of real or perceived conflict of interest could include receiving honoraria or consulting fees or receiving grants or funds from such corporations or individuals representing such corporations. The corresponding author should collect Conflict of Interest information from all co-authors before submitting a manuscript online.
- Accuracy of reference data is the author’s responsibility. Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, inclusive page numbers, publication dates, accents, diacritical marks, and spelling in languages other than English.
- Do not list the month/issue/day (the number in parentheses) in the reference.
- References with more than 6 authors should list the first 6 authors followed by et al.
- Cite references in numerical order according to first mention in text.
- Personal communications, unpublished observations, and submitted manuscripts must be cited in the text, not in the references, as “([name(s)], unpublished data, 2016)”
- References must be from a full-length publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
- Abstracts may be cited only if they are the sole source and must be identified in the references as “Abstract”
- “In-press” citations must have been accepted for publication and the name of the journal or book publisher included. Please provide a copy of any potentially overlapping manuscript that has been submitted to another journal or is in press or published elsewhere.
Print journal reference: Parker SA, Bowry R, Wu T-C, Noser EA, Jackson K, Richardson L, et al. Establishing the First Mobile Stroke Unit in the United States Stroke. 2015;46:1384-1391.
Online journal references: Chamberlain AM, Brown RD, Alonso A, Gersh BJ, Killian JM, Weston SA, et al. No Decline in the Risk of Stroke Following Incident Atrial Fibrillation Since 2000 in the Community: A Concerning Trend. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5:e003408.
Li J, Liu J, Liu M, Zhang S, Hao Z, Zhang J, et al. Closure versus medical therapy for preventing recurrent stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale and a history of cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015; 9: CD009938.
Publish-Ahead-of-Print reference: Sanossian N, Rosenberg L, Liebeskind DS, Starkman S, Eckstein M, Stratton S, et al. A Dedicated Spanish Language Line Increases Enrollment of Hispanics Into Prehospital Clinical Research. [published online ahead of print April 7, 2017]. Stroke. 2017. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2017/04/07/STROKEAHA.117.014745. Accessed April 12, 2017.
Book reference: Caplan L. Caplan's Stroke: A Clinical Approach. 4rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2009.
Website reference: Stroke Death Rates, Total Population Age 65+. National Heart Disease and Stroke Maps. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/maps/national_maps/stroke65_all.htm. Accessed September 6, 2016.
Web sites generally follow this format: Author names (if any). Title of information or page. Name of website. URL. Publication date (if any). Access date.
Software manual reference: StataCorp. Stata statistical software: Release 12. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP; 2011.
Government bulletin: Author. Title of bulletin. Place of publication: Name of issuing department or agency; publication date. Page numbers (if any). Publication number (if any). Series number (if any).
Database reference: CANCERNET-PDQ [database online]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. Updated March 29, 1996.
Provide figure legends on a separate page of the manuscript.
Permission is required for all images that are reused or adapted from another source. To obtain permission, please follow the instructions provided by the copyright holder or listed in the license agreement. This includes Creative Commons material; please refer to http://creativecommons.org/licenses for more information about properly crediting Creative Commons sources. Follow the copyright holder or licensor’s requirements for credit attributions and provide them in the figure legend. If no language is provided in the permission letter, use the following sample: Reprinted from Lin et al,19 with permission from Science Publishing. Copyright 2016, American Science Society.
- Each table must be typed on a separate sheet and double-spaced, if possible. The table number should be Arabic, followed by a period and a brief informative title.
- Use the same size type as in text.
- Tables should be cell-based (i.e., constructed using Microsoft Word tables or Excel). Do not use tabs or hard returns. Do not supply tables as graphics.
- Tables should be used to present comparisons of large amounts of data at a glance. Tables with only 1 or 2 rows of data should be incorporated into the text.
- Tables should be as compact as possible. Avoid unnecessary rows and columns.
- Use indenting within the stub column to indicate subgroups. Do not use bold, shading, rules, etc.
- Tables should not contain vertically merged cells; horizontally merged cells are permitted when necessary in the heading row.
- Internal headings are not permitted outside of the stub column. If internal headings are required, the table should be split into 2 tables.
- No internal shading is permitted.
- Units of measure should be in the heading row or stub column rather than the body of the table whenever possible.
- Indicate footnotes in the table in this order: *,†, ‡, §, | |, #, * * . Follow AMA 9th edition for footnote styles.
- Permission is required for all tables that are reused or adapted from another source. To obtain permission, please follow the instructions provided by the copyright holder or listed in the license agreement. Follow the copyright holder or licensor’s requirements for credit attributions and provide them in the table footnote. If no language is provided in the permission letter, use the following sample: Reprinted from Roberts et al,14 with permission from Smith Publishing. Copyright 2015, American Society of Medical Research.
- The combined total number of figures and tables is limited to 6 (3 for Brief Reports). Each figure may contain up to 4 panels (i.e., parts A to D) and must conform to the requirements for figures described below.
- Authors should be pleased with the figure submission quality before submission. We recommend that you print the figure at its final publication size to check the quality.
- Figures should be submitted as high-resolution TIFF or EPS files. PowerPoint files are discouraged because elements within the figure (such as axis labels) may shift location or drop out during conversion. Furter, do not create figures in Powerpoint because even if you convert to a different file type, the resolution will be too low for publication. JPEG, Word, PPT, and Excel files should not be used. See Artwork and Table Guidelines (PDF) for instructions for creating high-quality digital art.
- Figures should be supplied at the highest resolution possible for optimal clarity. Color figures should be at least 300 dpi; halftones, 600 dpi; and line art, 1200 dpi.
- Figures should be submitted at the final publication size. Please note that most figures will be sized at 1 column wide. Dimensions for figures are:
- 1 column: 3.25 inches wide (8 cm or 19.5 picas)
- 2 columns: 6.80 inches wide (17.272 cm or 40.8 picas)
- Color figures should be in RGB (red/green/blue) mode. If a figure is supplied in CMYK (cyan/magenta/yellow/black) mode, there may be a shift in the appearance of colors, especially fluorescents. Figures that will appear in black and white should be submitted in black and white.
- For line and bar graphs and pie charts, ensure that the colors/lines/symbols used for the different sets of data are easily distinguishable. Hair lines are hard to reproduce as are lines that are too thick, as they may make it hard to distinguish between the coordinates.
- Graphs and charts should have a white background.
- Labels for panels should be uppercase letters (A, B, C, D) in boldface Arial or Helvetica.
- Multipart figures may have no more than 4 panels (i.e., A, B, C, D).
- Multipart figures may be set at 2 columns across the page and should be laid out horizontally if appropriate.
- Use the same font (typeface) throughout the figure. Sans serif fonts, such as Arial and Helvetica, work best.
- Use the largest font size possible without distorting the figures. Text for super- or subscripts should be no smaller than 6 points.
- Whenever possible, all text within a figure should be the same size. If this is not possible, the font size should vary by no more than 2 points.
- Label units of measure consistently with the text and legend. Follow the AMA for unit abbreviations.
- Incorporate figure keys into the legend rather than including them as part of the figure whenever possible.
- Avoid heading/Title on the figure. Title information should be included in the figure legends.
- Any abbreviations or symbols used in the figures must be defined in the figure or figure legend.
- Follow AMA 9th edition for footnote style in legends.
- If the figure is reprinted/adapted from another source, please provide a permission letter and include the source in the legend as noted above.
- Supply a scale bar with photomicrographs.
- Authors are responsible for the cost of printing color illustrations. Authors are also responsible for obtaining from the copyright holder permission to reproduce previously published artwork.
- See AMA, 10th edition, Section 4.2 for more information on figures.
New April 5, 2017: Visual Abstract (ONLY for Basic Science Articles)
The intent of the visual abstract is to provide readers with a succinct summary of the study in a form that facilitates its dissemination in presentations. It can be submitted at any time, but is an absolute requirement for revision submissions of Basic Science submissions.
- A single figure panel/diagram/cartoon.
- Emphasize the new findings in the paper and clinical implications.
- Size: As an end compressed product the submitted image should be no larger than 18 cm (7 inches) square.
- Font: Prefer a san serif font that is no less than 12 point. Use the largest font size possible without distorting the figure.
- Do include a legend of no more than 50-100 words.
- Do not include data items; all content should be graphical.
- Please upload as Supplemental Material in PDF file format. This is separate from the single Supplemental PDF containing additional manuscript content noted below.
- This optional section provides an opportunity for authors to present supporting materials to the manuscript. The manuscript appears both in the print version and online, whereas Online Supplements are independent from the manuscript and appear only online in the format submitted by the authors. Online Supplements undergo peer review and therefore must be submitted simultaneously with original submissions.
- Any collaborators who need to be cross-referenced in PubMed should be listed either as authors or, for study groups, in the main manuscript file as an Appendix. This information is included in the word count. If contributors do not need to be listed as authors or cross-referenced in PubMed, then they may be included in a PDF Data Supplement to the manuscript.
- Online Supplements may consist of any of the following, in any combination: the expanded materials and methods; additional figures and supporting information; additional tables and supporting information; and, video files.
- The guidelines below should be used for online supplements:
- Material to be published as an online only supplement should be uploaded online as a single PDF. An exception to this would be if the online supplement is a video file.
- The online supplement should have a title page with the label of ONLINE SUPPLEMENT above the title. The supplemental material to be included in this PDF is as follows: Supplemental Methods, Supplemental Tables, Supplemental Figures and Figure Legends, and Supplemental References. If applicable, the legends for the Video files should also be included in this PDF.
- The online supplement should be single-spaced.
- If citations are made in the Online Supplement, the Online Supplement must contain its own independent Reference Section with references numbered sequentially, beginning with reference 1, even if some of these references duplicate those in the print version.
- Number supplementary figures and tables as Figure I, Figure II, Table I, Table II, etc.
- Place the supplemental figure legend underneath the corresponding figure.
- When referring to online-only material in the print version of the manuscript, use the phrase “please see http://stroke.ahajournals.org”
- Data Supplements appear only online and will not appear in reprints of the article. The Editorial Office is not responsible for converting files to a suitable format.
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