Table 2.

Association of Medical Complications During Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Hospitalization in the United States From 2004 to 2013 With Clinical and Hospital Factors

VariableUTIPneumonia*Sepsis*DVTPEARF†Acute MI†
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
 Y, per unit increase in y1.00 (1.00–1.01)0.96 (0.95–0.97)0.97 (0.96–0.98)1.01 (0.99–1.03)1.01 (0.98–1.04)1.09 (1.08–1.10)1.01 (0.99–1.02)
Age (y)
 40–59 vs 18–391.29 (1.15–1.46)1.13 (1.00–1.29)1.05 (0.90–1.23)0.94 (0.78–1.14)1.08 (0.75–1.54)1.05 (0.92–1.19)1.48 (1.06–2.06)§
 60–79 vs 18–391.47 (1.32–1.67)1.09 (0.95–1.26)0.85 (0.72–1.00)§1.05 (0.85–1.28)1.06 (0.73–1.53)0.95 (0.84–1.09)1.56 (1.10–2.21)§
 >=80 vs 18–391.83 (1.61–2.07)1.11 (0.95–1.31)0.66 (0.55–0.79)0.64 (0.51–0.81)0.59 (0.39–0.90)§0.91 (0.79–1.05)1.47 (1.03–2.10)§
Sex, females vs males2.25 (2.17–2.34)‖0.75 (0.71–0.79)0.79 (0.74–0.84)0.77 (0.72–0.84)0.73 (0.63–0.84)0.62 (0.59–0.66)1.06 (0.97–1.16)
Race
 Blacks vs whites1.07 (1.01–1.14)§1.07 (0.99–1.15)1.40 (1.26–1.55)1.23 (1.08–1.40)1.17 (0.97–1.42)1.66 (1.55–1.78)0.83 (0.71–0.97)§
 Hispanics vs whites1.10 (1.02–1.18)§1.17 (1.07–1.28)1.24 (1.10–1.41)0.80 (0.68–0.96)§0.72 (0.53–0.99)§1.09 (1.00–1.20)1.04 (0.88–1.22)
 Others vs whites1.04 (0.97–1.12)1.15 (1.03–1.27)1.16 (1.04–1.30)0.71 (0.60–0.85)0.75 (0.55–1.02)1.17 (1.07–1.29)1.02 (0.87–1.21)
Income
 $39 000–$47 999 vs <$39 0001.04 (0.99–1.09)0.96 (0.90–1.02)1.01 (0.93–1.10)1.07 (0.96–1.19)1.03 (0.85–1.27)1.00 (0.94–1.07)0.99 (0.87–1.11)
 $48 000–$62 999 vs <$39 0001.00 (0.94–1.05)0.88 (0.82–0.95)0.92 (0.83–1.01)1.11 (0.99–1.26)0.93 (0.75–1.16)1.00 (0.93–1.08)0.93 (0.81–1.07)
 ≥$63 000 vs <$39 0000.97 (0.92–1.03)0.91 (0.83–0.99)§0.93 (0.84–1.03)1.16 (1.02–1.33)§1.02 (0.78–1.24)0.94 (0.86–1.02)0.95 (0.83–1.09)
Insurance
 Medicaid vs Medicare1.26 (1.17–1.36)1.37 (1.26–1.50)1.43 (1.28–1.60)1.34 (1.15–1.56)1.53 (1.17–2.00)1.62 (1.49–1.76)1.13 (0.94–1.36)
 Private vs Medicare0.84 (0.79–0.88)1.02 (0.95–1.09)0.88 (0.81–0.97)§1.30 (1.17–1.44)1.25 (1.03–1.54)§1.11 (1.04–1.19)0.92 (0.81–1.05)
 Self-pay vs Medicare0.85 (0.78–0.93)0.88 (0.78–0.99)§0.93 (0.81–1.08)0.91 (0.74–1.11)1.25 (0.91–1.71)1.63 (1.47–1.79)1.13 (0.91–1.39)
 Other vs Medicare0.86 (0.76–0.97)§1.03 (0.89–1.19)0.94 (0.79–1.11)1.29 (1.04–1.60)§1.14 (0.75–1.72)1.35 (1.18–1.54)1.13 (0.87–1.47)
Hospital region
 Midwest vs Northeast0.93 (0.86–1.00)1.11 (0.99–1.24)0.80 (0.69–0.92)0.94 (0.79–1.13)0.78 (0.62–0.98)§0.95 (0.86–1.05)0.99 (0.83–1.17)
 South vs Northeast1.11 (1.04–1.19)1.08 (0.97–1.20)0.96 (0.85–1.10)0.81 (0.68–0.96)0.77 (0.62–0.96)§1.09 (0.99–1.19)0.94 (0.79–1.09)
 West vs Northeast1.05 (0.98–1.12)1.00 (0.89–1.13)0.83 (0.72–0.96)§0.87 (0.72–1.05)0.91 (0.70–1.17)0.99 (0.88–1.11)0.94 (0.79–1.13)
Hospital location/teaching status
 Urban nonteaching vs rural1.09 (0.99–1.21)1.11 (0.98–1.26)1.63 (1.31–2.04)1.27 (0.80–2.00)0.95 (0.60–1.51)1.67 (1.42–1.95)1.19 (0.94–1.49)
 Urban teaching vs rural1.25 (1.12–1.39)1.17 (1.02–1.42)§1.99 (1.58–2.51)1.55 (0.95–2.56)1.20 (0.74–1.91)1.92 (1.63–2.27)1.33 (1.05–1.69)
Stroke volume per y
 Middle tertile vs lowest tertile1.06 (1.00–1.11)0.93 (0.85–1.00)0.87 (0.78–0.97)§1.16 (1.03–1.38)§1.02 (0.83–1.27)0.98 (0.90–1.06)0.81 (0.72–0.93)§
 Upper tertile vs lower tertile1.17 (1.09–1.25)1.00 (0.90–1.11)0.83 (0.72–0.95)1.44 (1.20–1.73)1.12 (0.87–1.45)0.90 (0.81–0.99)§1.02 (0.86–1.20)
Hospital bed size
 Medium vs small1.02 (0.93–1.11)0.94 (0.86–1.06)1.34(1.11–1.62)1.32 (0.97–1.80)0.79 (0.56–1.11)1.03 (0.89–1.19)1.12 (0.90–1.39)
 Large vs small1.05 (0.96–1.14)0.98 (0.87–1.10)1.30 (1.08–1.55)1.42 (1.04–1.94)§1.01 (0.73–1.41)1.11 (0.97–1.28)1.15 (0.93–1.42)
Weekend admission1.00 (0.96–1.04)1.02 (0.97–1.07)0.96 (0.90–1.03)1.00 (0.92–1.09)0.93 (0.80–1.10)1.00 (0.95–1.05)1.04 (0.95–1.14)
Baseline coagulopathy1.28 (1.20–1.37)1.52 (1.40–1.65)2.18(1.98–2.40)1.90(1.68–2.13)1.58 (1.24–2.00)1.66 (1.53–1.80)1.44 (1.23–1.69)
Atrial fibrillation1.17 (1.12–1.23)1.29 (1.22–1.37)1.19 (1.10–1.29)1.07 (0.96–1.19)1.15 (0.94–1.40)1.28 (1.20–1.36)1.04 (0.90–1.14)
Dysphagia2.17 (2.06–2.28)1.99 (1.86–2.13)1.49 (1.36–1.64)1.73 (1.57–1.1)1.33 (1.09–1.62)1.37 (1.28–1.47)0.94 (0.82–1.09)
Mechanical ventilation0.74 (0.70–0.78)3.88 (3.19–4.71)1.78 (1.64–1.93)1.31 (1.19–1.44)0.90 (0.75–1.02)1.51 (1.41–1.61)1.67 (1.50–1.86)
Coma0.75 (0.70–0.80)1.06 (0.98–1.15)1.05 (0.95–1.17)0.75 (0.65–0.88)0.76 (0.57–1.01)1.00 (0.92–1.09)1.07 (0.92–1.24)
AVM or aneurysm1.05 (0.93–1.19)1.36 (1.18–1.57)1.14 (0.94–1.39)1.57 (1.30–1.90)1.40 (0.96–2.04)0.74 (0.63–0.88)0.95 (0.70–1.29)
Craniotomy1.20 (1.01–1.43)§1.84 (1.58–2.15)1.49 (1.23–1.81)2.16 (1.74–2.69)1.67 (1.09–2.54)§1.04 (0.84–1.28)1.21 (0.86–1.71)
EVD/VPS1.67 (1.55–1.80)2.72 (2.51–2.95)2.22 (2.03–2.43)2.33 (2.09–2.60)2.06 (1.65–2.56)1.49 (1.38–1.61)1.42 (1.22–1.65)
Smoking0.78 (0.73–0.84)0.79 (0.73–0.86)0.58 (0.51–0.65)0.51 (0.44–0.60)0.43 (0.32–0.58)0.83 (0.77–0.90)0.98 (0.84–1.14)
Modified CCI
 CCI=2 vs CCI=11.19 (1.13–1.24)1.19 (1.11–1.27)1.16 (1.07–1.28)1.00 (0.88–1.12)0.93 (0.73–1.17)1.33 (1.25–1.43)1.03 (0.91–1.17)
 CCI=3 vs CCI=11.32 (1.25–1.39)1.61 (1.50–1.73)1.54 (1.41–1.69)1.73 (1.55–1.93)1.60 (1.32–1.95)1.50 (1.39–1.62)1.11 (0.97–1.27)
 CCI≥4 vs CCI=11.33 (1.26–1.40)1.86 (1.73–1.99)1.74 (1.59–1.90)1.90 (1.71–2.11)1.99 (1.62–2.45)1.51 (1.39–1.63)1.13 (0.98–1.31)
  • Multivariate logistic models adjusted for all factors above with estimates. ARF indicates acute renal failure; AVM, arteriovenous malformation; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; CI, confidence interval; DVT, deep venous thrombosis; EVD/VPS, hydrocephalus requiring external ventricular drain/ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement; MI, myocardial infarction; OR, odds ratio; PE, pulmonary embolism; and UTI, urinary tract infection.

  • * Models for pneumonia and sepsis also include interaction term between age and mechanical ventilator use.

  • Model for ARF also includes further adjustment for chronic renal failure (OR, 5.32; 95% CI, 4.96–5.72; P<0.001) and for acute myocardial infarction further adjusted for coronary artery disease (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.68–2.06), congestive heart failure (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.33–2.96), valvular heart disease (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.61), all Pvalues <0.001.

  • Pvalue <0.001.

  • § P value <0.05 but ≤0.01.

  • P value <0.01 but ≤0.001.